Comments on ontologies

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Some comments can be made about ontologies.

Comment 1: This is a big one. They are a data centric approach. Data is not absolute in itself and is a consequence of the point of view of the viewer.

Comment 2: Problem in design between concept and attribute. Attribute can be a concept also. We are coming back to OO class diagram design issues.

Comment 3: Ontologies are too generic as a tool. There can be intermediate level of abstractions.

Comment 4: This is a big one. Ontologies should be able to represent much more than classic OO concepts. It could be possible to generalize the "instance of" concept. A is an instance B that is an instance of C. Generally, in language complexity, we can see this kind of multiple levels of instantiations.

Comment 5: This is also a big one. A tree is one of the most ambiguous way of representing knowledge. Knowledge is more a graph of nodes with various kinds of links. In ontologies, trees are used to represent inheritance, but inheritance can be multiple. Inheritance in indeed a very strong connection between classes and the tree view is proposing the interpretation that things could be represented in a tree (which is not the case at all).

Comment 6: This is also a very big one. Ontology samples can change the perspective on the representation of the structure of things. The world is already standardized in many ways and things have been ordered already in the past by authorities. Let's take the sample of the ontology describing the French wines classification. Indeed, this sample will converge to the proper classification already standardized. Very often, this classification was done for regulatory or standardization issues. Then, the ontology sample can be flawed because it will model, not a disorganized knowledge but an already organized knowledge. In terms of language, it does not design a knowledge in the absolute sense of the term but a human product hierarchy or classification. Indeed, those ontologies should not be classified as knowledge representation because they have already their equivalent outside of the ontology world.